Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Education (MAEd)


Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Leisure Studies

First Advisor

Kazuma Akehi

Committee Members

Scott Unruh, Bryce Abbey, Sri Seshadri


Anterior Knee Pain;Hip Rehabilitation;Mobility;Stability


Context: Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a symptom of poor biomechanics and strength deficits. Common hip rehabilitation programs perform only static, but dynamic exercises are more functional based. Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine if static or dynamic hip exercise increased knee stability and functional mobility while decreasing AKP in dancers. Design: Randomized factorial design. Setting: Controlled laboratory setting. Subjects: Twelve college-aged dancers (21.75±1.06yrs) voluntarily participated. Six of the 12 subjects perceived to have AKP. Interventions: Subjects reported to the laboratory twice (pre- and post-hip rehabilitation exercises) to measure their hip stability and functionality. An 8-week of static or dynamic hip rehabilitation exercises was randomly assigned in each subject. Measurements: Stability of the knee/hip was measured through the Y-Balance System and the BESS tests. Functional mobility was measured by the single and double leg squat analysis. A visual analogue scale was conducted to show perceived knee pain. Results: Improvements were observed from pretest to posttest for the Y-Balance System in anterior (F1,8=10.23, P=0.012), posteromedial (F1,8=5.51, P=0.047), and posterolateral (F1,8=16.33, P=0.004) directions, knee valgus/varus (F1,8 =6.14, P=0.02) for the single leg squat, and overall scores (F1.8=15.75, P=0.004) for the double leg squat. Interactions were found between pain x treatment (F1,8=6.37, P=0.036) and pain x testing (F1,8= 121.94, P<0.001). Conclusions: Performing hip rehabilitation exercises seemed to improve knee and hip stability and functional mobility. It was not determined if static or dynamic exercises had a higher increase than the other. Dynamic hip exercises decreased AKP more compared to static.



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